• ISI (Pakistan): The ISI is a master at playing both sides. Having set up the Taliban in the 1980s, it remains involved in the Afghan militant group. At the same time, Pakistani intelligence has supported the US in its war against the Taliban. So whose side is it on? The answer is: probably its own.

  • MOIS (Iran): Rumours abound of Mossad and CIA influence in the Iranian intelligence agency, so counter-intelligence efforts to safeguard Iran’s nuclear secrets are paramount. MOIS has stepped up its activity in Afghanistan, assisting the Taliban.

  • RAW (India): Criticised after the Mumbai siege in 2008, India’s Research and Analysis Wing has invested in new equipment. Believed to have thousands of agents in Pakistan, RAW is allegedly behind camps that train fighters to wage a proxy war against the Pakistani military in Kashmir.

Monocle 24

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